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  • 石一寧:責任·悲憫·細節——關于李進祥的短篇小說


    責任·悲憫·細節——關于李進祥的短篇小說

    石一寧(壯族)

     

    當下寧夏作家群中,有很多作家作品頗為引人注目,回族作家李進祥即為其中之一。

     

    李進祥的短篇小說,題材上大都聚焦回族鄉村的人與事,比如《關于狗的二三事》《換水》《植物人》等篇。偶爾也寫城鎮,但人物也多是來自鄉村,或者跟鄉村有千絲萬縷的聯系。發表于《民族文學》2016年第8期的《帶著男人去北京》,故事發生在火車上,但女主人公和她的男人亦是來自鄉村的農民。

     

    李進祥在短篇小說集《換水》的代后記《永遠走不出清水河》一文中談到,他出生在發源于六盤山的清水河畔,家鄉的日子是苦澀的,而清水河也同樣苦澀,不能飲用,也不能澆地。但就在這塊被認為不適合人類生存的地方,父老鄉親們卻活了下來,在極端的艱苦中演繹著極致的人生,綻放出最艷麗的生命光華。在清水河的堿水里泡大,我的良知的眼睛睜開了,我便有了一種責任;我思索的眼睛也張開了,心生出一種悲憫,為自己,為清水河畔的人,也為多災多難的回民族。一條清水河,足以讓他寫上一生:走不出清水河,像走不出一段愛情;走不出清水河,像走不出一種宿命。這些話對讀者理解他的作品有很大的幫助。的確,讀李進祥的小說,會感到其中貫穿著責任和悲憫。他的小說如同家鄉的清水河一樣,是苦澀的,但又像家鄉的父老鄉親的情懷一樣,是溫情的、暖心的。他的小說并不讓人輕松,但也沒有高亢的調子,沒有激昂的表情,而是像平緩的河流一樣靜靜地流淌,默默地灌溉著土地,滋潤著人心。

     

    對一個優秀的作家來說,最重要的不是他的創作宣言,而是他實現自己的文學觀和文學理想的能力。李進祥深刻地明白這個道理,他精心地,也可以說是小心翼翼地經營自己的小說世界。小說要寫得精,構思故事、塑造人物要稱得上精心,必然是小心翼翼的。在小說筆法的運用上,他大致有三種:一種是通過人物的言行包括意境氛圍的描寫來刻畫人物,如《口弦子奶奶》《關于狗的二三事》《鷂子客》《方匠》等;一種是通過人物的心理狀態來揭示人性的細微深處,如《梨花醉》《狗村長》等;還有一類小說,是這兩種手法的綜合運用,既從人物的外部,也從人物的內部來描寫和表現人物,如《換水》《帶著男人去北京》等。這三種小說筆法各有各的效果,很難說哪一種最優。三種手法的共存,讓李進祥的小說體現出一種藝術的豐富性。

     

    李進祥小說令人最擊節贊賞的,是他的細節描寫之細。有的不成熟作家的細節,其實不能稱為細節,它們太粗枝大葉,太不精細。而李進祥的小說,在細節上的描寫是認認真真、老老實實的,一點不敢馬虎、偷懶,如《挦臉》《剃頭匠》這兩篇小說對挦臉”“剃頭這兩種民間風俗和技藝的描寫,其細致入微的精彩,令人印象深刻難忘,可謂一筆一畫寫出來的。他寫得細心、小心的程度,就像小說中所寫的挦臉、剃頭不能有血口子一樣,他對自己也要求下筆不能有血口子。當然,這又需要作家對這兩種技藝的仔細觀察和研究。從李進祥小說的細節描寫,可以看到他對民族傳統的致敬和傳承。

     

    李進祥的小說對人物的塑造、對人性的刻畫,又往往是與時代社會的變遷,與現實生活的波動相結合,如《換水》《屠戶》《遍地毒蝎》等篇,有很強的現實性,寫出了市場經濟時代的人心與人性狀態,其中有堅守、有變異,有無奈、有惶惑,就像現實生活已經復雜化一樣,人心和人性也變得復雜了。這些都是我們這個時代的產物,讓人讀了心痛,但很真實。

     

    李進祥小說并非已臻完美,其中的不足之處,在于不少篇章偏重于故事的講述,對人物的刻畫尤其是典型化塑造還不夠,還沒有達到震撼人心或觸動靈魂的程度。期待他創作上有新的精進。

     

    刊于《文藝報》20171011

     


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